ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my teacher MR. SITARAM SAINI as well as our principal MR. H.R. MEENA who gave me the golden opportunity to do this wonderful project on the topic FOAMING CAPACITY OF SOAPS , which also helped me in doing a lot of Research and i came to know about so many new things I am really thankful to them.
Secondly i would also like to thank my parents and friends who helped me a lot in finalizing this project within the limited time frame.
INDEX 1.INTRODUCTION 2.COMMERCIAL PREPARATION 3. EXPERIMENT 4.OBJECTIVE & THEORY 5.PROCEDURE 6.OBSERVATION TABLE
7.RESULT 8.TEST FOR HARDNESS 9.BIBILOGRAPHY
introduction Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of higher fatty acids like stearic, palmitic and oleic acids can be either saturated or unsaturated. They contain a long hydrocarbon chain of about 10-20 carbon with one carboxylic acid group as the functional group. A soap molecule a tadpole shaped structure, whose ends have different polarities. At one end is the long hydrocarbon chain that is non-
polar and hydrophobic, i.e., insoluble in water but oil soluble. At the other end is the short polar carboxylate ion which is hydrophilic i.e., water soluble but insoluble in oil and grease. Long Hydrocarbon Chain Hydrophobic end Hydrophilic end When soap is shaken with water it becomes a soap solution that is colloidal in nature. Agitating it tends to concentrate the solution on the surface and causes foaming. This helps the soap molecules make a unimolecular film on the surface of water and to penetrate the fabric. The long non-polar end of a soap molecule that are hydrophobic, gravitate towards and surround the dirt (fat or oil with dust absorbed in it). The short polar end containing the carboxylate
ion, face the water away from the dirt. A number of soap molecules surround or encircle dirt and grease in a clustered structure called 'micelles', which encircles such particles and emulsify them. Cleansing action of soaps decreases in hard water. Hard water contains Calcium and magnesium ions which react with sodium carbonate to produce insoluble carbonates of higher fatty acids. This hardness can be removed by addition of Sodium Carbonate. COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS The most popular soap making process today is the cold process method where fat such as olive oil
sector will strong alkaline solution wild some Soapers use the historical hot process Handmade soap different from industrial shopping, usually and I accept that is sometimes used to consume the alkali and is not removed, leaving a natural moisturizer soap and detergent emollient search as search added actress which is the saponification process is sufficiently advanced that the soap has begun after most of the oils have saponified So that they remain undirected in the finished soap.
Soap is derived from either vegetable or animal fats sodium tallowate is derived from fat soap can also be made of vegetable oils as palm oil and the product is typically softer. An array of saponification and fats are used in the process of chest only with coconut Palm oil to provide different qualities for example only for oil provides info coconut oil provides lots of leather wild coconut and farmers provide hardness Sometimes castor oil can also be used as an event. Unsaponifiable oils and fats that do not yield so headed for further benefits.
PREPARATIONS OF SOAPS IN cold Process and hot process soap making it may be required the cold process of making take place at the sufficient temperature set of a story the fat big used process can be used right away because the early and fat saponified quickly at the higher temperature used in hot process soap making. Cold process of making required measurements of alkali and mouse and computing the ratio using saponification charts to answer that the finished product is mild and skin friendly.
IN HOT PROCESS Hot process in the hot process together at 801000 c saponification which is the soap maker can determine by taste or by eye. COLD PROCESS Cold which is the news to calculate the process soap makes up the saponification value of the fat used on a saponification chart appropriate amount of alkali Excess unreacted allegory in the shop will result In a very high PH and can burn are edited skin not enough so far easy teacher the alkalies dissolved in water that also heated. Then if the solid at room temperature .Once both substances to have cooled to approximately 10 degrees fahrenheit guide this Twister interest there are wearing levels of traces .
EXPERIMENT Soap samples of various brands are taken and their capacity with the next informing capacities said to be heavy tails capacities in notice sample taken separately and their foaming capacity is observed best cleaning capacity the test request to be done with distilled water as well as with the test of soap on distilled water give the actual strength of the cleaning capacity request to be done with distilled water as well as Ca+2 ,Mg+2 capacity.
OBJECTIVE To compare the foaming capacity of various soaps. THEORY The foaming capacity of soaps upon the nature of the shop and its concentration this may be compared by equal having the same concentrations which saves the same amount of time used during disappears gradually the time taken to disappear in equal sample is determined the longer the time take it for the form today disappear elite sample is determined the longer time taken for the disappearance of the given sample
offshore of greater is its foaming capacity cleaning action. REQUIREMENTS FIVE 100ml conical flask, 5 test tubes 100 ml measuring cylinder, test tube stand, weighing machine ,stopwatch CHEMICALS REQUIRED 5 different of Soap sample, distilled water , tap water.
Procedure 1. Take 5 100ml conical flasks add number 1….2345 p put 60 table of water in each flask and add 8 grams of soap.
2. Warm the contents to get a solution. 3. Take 5 test tubes add 1 ml of soap solution to 3 ml of water Repeat the process for each soap solution in different test. 4. Close the mouths of the test tube and vigorously for a minute do the same for all test tubes and with equal force. 5. Start the timer immediately and not is the rate of 2 mm froth.
OBSERVATIONS Test tube No.
Volume of Volume soap of water solutions added
1.Dove 2.lux 3.Tetmosol 4.Santoor 5.Cinthol
8ml 8ml 8ml 8ml 8ml
16ml 16ml 16ml 16ml 16ml
Time taken for disappearance
11’42” 3’28” 5’10” 15’32” 9’40”
RESULT The cleansing capacity of soaps taken is in the order SANTOOR>DOVE>CINTHOL>TETMOSOL>LUX From these experiment we can infer that santoor has the highest foaming capacity in other words highest cleaning capacity l Lux on the other hand is found to be have least amount of time taken disapperance of the foam
Produced and thus is said to be have least foaming capacity and cleansing capacity test for handness in water. TEST for Ca+2 and Mg+2 salts in the water supplied Test for Ca+2 in water . H2O + NH4Cl +NH4OH+(NH4)2CO3 No precipitate. That show negative result for the presence of salts Causing hardness in water.The water used doesn’t contain salts of Ca+2 and Mg+2 .the tap water provided is soft and thus the experimental.
BIBILOGRAPHY 1.Together with lab manual chemistry class xii 2.NCERT books of chemistry 3.www.yahoo.com 4.www.google.com 5.www.cbse.nic.in
G.S.B.V. Matiala Name Class
- Rahul kumar - xii c
Roll no. - 9696174
Subject - chemistry Project submitted to – MR.SITARAM SAINI
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